Implantation is the placement of artificial tooth roots (dental implants) to the maxilla ormandible, to which an artificial crown is fitted after a 3 to 6 month recovery period.
- A screw-shaped external threaded implant
- Artificial crown
What is the implant construction like?
Medically tested and scientifically researched over decades the implants are screw-shaped, external threaded cylindrical or conical tooth root analogues made of pure titanium. This shape ensures the implant screwed into the bone is stable and grows into the bone, known as osseointegration.
The implant has an opening to which the construction bearing part, also known as the abutment, is attached.
A crown or removable prosthesis is attached to the abutment.
What are the advantages of implants?
- Preserve the jaw
- Preserve tooth height and prevent adjacent teeth form sinking in
- No need to damage adjacent teeth
- Removable prostheses based on implants have a higher chewing efficiency and are more stable and smaller in size
- Higher long-term success of the prosthesis
- Smaller dimensions of the prosthesis
How does the implant grow into the bone (ossification)?
The surface of the implant is particularly rough. This creates the prerequisites for the bone to grow together with the implant. Depending on the location of placement (maxilla or mandible), quality and stability of the bone tissue, the load and type of prosthesis, implants can be placed immediately after tooth removal or after some time. In certain cases a prostheses can be placed immediately. Recovery and loading depend on several circumstances, the doctor decides on the appropriate methodology according to indications.
Usually healing takes 6 months in the maxilla and 3 months in the mandible.
What is the probability of ossification?
About 95% of fitted implants ossify without issues.
How long do the implants last?
Statistically, 95-98% of implants remain in place 10 years after implantation, provided they have been competently placed and maintained.
General diseases and implantation?
Some general diseases are a contraindication for implantation. In principle, risks regarding general diseases should be considered individually. Treatment-controlled diabetes and osteoporosis are generally not contraindicated.
What is the cost of an implant?
Implantation has several stages, and the cost of all treatment depends, for example, on the area of placement, condition of the jaw and crown materials. We will prepare an individual treatment plan for you with a quote and the doctor will explain different options. You can see the prices here.
Anatomical Conditions for Implantation
The presence of sufficient bone is crucial for the success of implantation. In order to obtain a good long-term result, placed implants must be surrounded by strong bone. After removal of the tooth, shrinkage of the jaw occurs (atrophy). The longer the tooth is out of the jaw, the greater the shrinkage.
Maxilla cross section. Over time, shrinkage of the jaw continues to develop until at last there is not enough bone to place an implant.
To avoid complications, surrounding anatomical structures must be observed during implantation:
- Maxillary sinuses in the maxilla, which may limit implant placement. An implant entering the maxillary sinus can cause inflammation.
- In the mandibular lateral teeth area, a nerve (Nervus alveolaris inferior) passes through the jaw, giving sensitivity to the jaw and lower lip. When placing an implant that is too long, there is a risk of damaging this nerve, which may lead to lasting sensory disorders.
Injuries to these anatomical parts is avoided by: proficient surgical action, careful diagnostics and planning and careful surgery. In special cases CT scans are used during preparation.
Diagnostics and Planning
After examination an X-ray must be checked for whether bones and space between the teeth are sufficient for implantation.
The primary method is a panoramic image of the teeth and jaw.
In complex cases, a CT scan and planning must be carried out using special software. Implants are placed using a guide plate made according to it.
IMPLANTATION PROCESS FOR A PATIENT WITH GOOD ANATOMICAL CONDITIONS
Placing an implant is completely painless with local anesthesia.
- There may be swelling for up to 3 days after the operation. During this period working capacity is restricted.
- Sutures are removed after 1 to 2 weeks.
In case the jaw is shrunk to such an extent that an implant cannot be placed there or a long-term result seems uncertain, a bone augmentation operation must be carried out in advance. For that either the patient’s bone or artificial bone is used:
The patient’s bone.
Suitable places for extracting bone are: oral cavity, hip bone, skull. The most suitable place in the oral cavity is the back or front (chin) of the mandible.
Advantages: fixing a defect with a bone taken from the patient yields best results.
Disadvantages: traumatic, means creating two wounds in the mouth.
Advantages: less traumatic, no other wound.
Disadvantages: slightly worse ability of ossification, longer recovery time, slightly lesser quality bone for the implant.
A doctor will decide on the best method of surgery for you.
Methods used for bone augmentation:
1) Raising the bottom of the maxillary sinus (Sinuslift).
This operation is indicated for you if there is insufficient bone height in the maxilla.
Stages of the operation:
- Shrunk maxilla. Mucosa in the maxillary sinus is pink colored.
- Mucosa in the maxillary sinus is raised and space is created between the mucosa and bottom, where a bone substitute with pieces of the patient’s bone is introduced.
- Implants are placed after 6 to 9 months.
- The implants have ossified after 6 months and crowns can be attached to them.
2) Filling jaw defects with the patient’s bone.
A rectangular piece of bone is taken from the chin or back part of the mandible, which is attached with screws to fill the defect. The bone piece is covered with a protective membrane. An implant is placed after 4 months.
Time Course of Implantation in Case of Bone Planting
In case of bone grafting or raising the maxillary sinus bottom it takes longer than one year to place a prosthesis.